Friday, December 26, 2014

Russia's new military doctrine - Google Search | TASS: Russia - Russia's new military doctrine says use of protest moods typical for conflicts nowadays | "Характерные черты и особенности современных военных конфликтов: участие в военных действиях иррегулярных вооруженных формирований и частных военных компаний; использование финансируемых и управляемых извне политических сил, общественных движений."

NDCC war room. Computer simulation. Image by Defence Ministy
NDCC war room. Computer simulation. Image by Defence Ministy
Russia is launching a new national defense facility, which is meant to monitor threats to national security in peacetime, but would take control of the entire country in case of war.

Russia launches ‘wartime government’ HQ in major military upgrade — RT News


Comparison of Russia's military doctrines of 2010 and 2014 

Военная доктрина Российской Федерации - 2014 - EXCERPTS

I. Общие положения

9. Мировое развитие на современном этапе характеризуется
усилением глобальной конкуренции, напряженности в различных
областях межгосударственного и межрегионального
взаимодействия, соперничеством ценностных ориентиров и
моделей развития, неустойчивостью процессов экономического и
политического развития на глобальном и региональном уровнях на
фоне общего осложнения международных отношений. Происходит
поэтапное перераспределение влияния в пользу новых центров
экономического роста и политического притяжения.

II. Военные опасности и военные угрозы Российской Федерации
11. Наметилась тенденция смещения военных опасностей и
военных угроз в информационное пространство и внутреннюю
сферу Российской Федерации. При этом, несмотря на снижение

12. Основные внешние военные опасности:
а) наращивание силового потенциала Организации
Североатлантического договора (НАТО) и наделение ее
глобальными функциями, реализуемыми в нарушение норм
международного права, приближение военной инфраструктуры
стран - членов НАТО к границам Российской Федерации, в том
числе путем дальнейшего расширения блока;
б) дестабилизация обстановки в отдельных государствах и
регионах и подрыв глобальной и региональной стабильности;
в) развертывание (наращивание) воинских контингентов
иностранных государств (групп государств) на территориях
государств, сопредельных с Российской Федерацией и ее
союзниками, а также в прилегающих акваториях, в том числе для
политического и военного давления на Российскую Федерацию;
г) создание и развертывание систем стратегической
противоракетной обороны, подрывающих глобальную
стабильность и нарушающих сложившееся соотношение сил в
ракетно-ядерной сфере, реализация концепции "глобального
удара", намерение разместить оружие в космосе, а также
развертывание стратегических неядерных систем высокоточного
оружия;
к) растущая угроза глобального экстремизма (терроризма) и
его новых проявлений в условиях недостаточно эффективного
международного антитеррористического сотрудничества, реальная
угроза проведения терактов с применением радиоактивных и
токсичных химических веществ, расширение масштабов
транснациональной организованной преступности, прежде всего
незаконного оборота оружия и наркотиков;
м) использование информационных и коммуникационных
технологий в военно-политических целях для осуществления
действий, противоречащих международному праву, направленных
против суверенитета, политической независимости,
территориальной целостности государств и представляющих угрозу
международному миру, безопасности, глобальной и региональной
стабильности;

13. Основные внутренние военные опасности:

в) деятельность по информационному воздействию на
население, в первую очередь на молодых граждан страны, имеющая
целью подрыв исторических, духовных и патриотических традиций
в области защиты Отечества;

15. Характерные черты и особенности современных военных
конфликтов:
а) комплексное применение военной силы, политических,
экономических, информационных и иных мер невоенного
б) массированное применение систем вооружения и военной
техники, высокоточного, гиперзвукового оружия, средств
радиоэлектронной борьбы, оружия на новых физических
принципах, сопоставимого по эффективности с ядерным оружием,
информационно-управляющих систем, а также беспилотных
летательных и автономных морских аппаратов, управляемых
роботизированных образцов вооружения и военной техники;

з) участие в военных действиях иррегулярных вооруженных
формирований и частных военных компаний;

к) использование финансируемых и управляемых извне
политических сил, общественных движений.

27. Российская Федерация оставляет за собой право
применить ядерное оружие в ответ на применение против нее и
(или) ее союзников ядерного и других видов оружия массового
поражения, а также в случае агрессии против Российской

у) обеспечение национальных интересов Российской
Федерации в Арктике.

IV. Военно-экономическое обеспечение обороны
43. Основной задачей военно-экономического обеспечения
обороны является создание условий для устойчивого развития и
поддержания возможностей военно-экономического и военно-
технического потенциалов государства на уровне, необходимом для
реализации военной политики и надежного удовлетворения
потребностей военной организации в мирное время, в период
непосредственной угрозы агрессии и в военное время.

46. Задачи оснащения Вооруженных Сил, других войск и
органов вооружением, военной и специальной техникой:

в) развитие сил и средств информационного противоборства;

е) создание новых образцов высокоточного оружия и средств
борьбы с ним, средств воздушно-космической обороны, систем
связи, разведки и управления, радиоэлектронной борьбы,
комплексов беспилотных летательных аппаратов,
роботизированных ударных комплексов, современной
транспортной авиации, систем индивидуальной защиты
военнослужащих; 

ж) создание базовых информационно-управляющих систем и
их интеграция с системами управления оружием и комплексами
средств автоматизации органов управления стратегического,
оперативно-стратегического, оперативного, оперативно-
тактического и тактического масштаба.

_________________________

TASS: Russia - Russia's new military doctrine says use of protest moods typical for conflicts nowadays 


Archive


Russia Hardens Military Doctrine Amid NATO Standoff Over Ukraine

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Russia hardened its military doctrine, identifying new threats after tensions with its Cold War foe NATO increased over the conflict in Ukraine.
The revised document posted today on the Kremlin website names attempts to overthrow neighboring governments as a major threat, as well as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s buildup close to the country’s borders. The previous draft was published in 2010.
Russia also cited as threats information campaigns aimed at corrupting the Russian population, sabotage by foreign intelligence, the deployment of missile-defense components and high-precision conventional weapons, and the use of information technology for military purposes.
The new doctrine threatens to exacerbate one of Russia’s tensest post-Cold War standoffs with the U.S. and Europe, which began with the annexation of Ukraine’s Crimea peninsula in March after the ousting of pro-Kremlin President Viktor Yanukovych. That sparked a series of sanctions against Russia that have pushed its economy to the brink of recession.
NATO, at its September summit in Wales, shored up its eastern defenses as the U.S., which contributes two-thirds of the alliance’s military spending, urged European allies to pay more. The alliance agreed to rotate more troops through eastern Europe and to set up a 5,000-soldier rapid-reaction force.
Russia decided to update its military doctrine after new threats emerged following the Arab Spring revolutions and conflicts in Syria and Ukraine, the deputy secretary of the Security Council, Mikhail Popov, said in September.
Syrian President Bashar al-Assad has stayed in power despite a more than three-year civil war, backed by Russia and Iran in the face of efforts by the U.S. and its allies to dislodge him. Russian President Vladimir Putin branded as a “crusade” the NATO-led air campaign that toppled Libyan leader Muammar Qaddafi in 2011.
“Russia is the target of an unprecedented information-propaganda campaign,” Popov said. “It’s being cast as an enemy and its political course is seen as a new threat for NATO.”
To contact the reporter on this story: Henry Meyer in Moscow at <a href="mailto:hmeyer4@bloomberg.net">hmeyer4@bloomberg.net</a>
To contact the editors responsible for this story: Balazs Penz at <a href="mailto:bpenz@bloomberg.net">bpenz@bloomberg.net</a> Scott Rose, Torrey Clark
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TASS: Russia - Russia’s revised military doctrine lists foreign private military firms among threats

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MOSCOW, December 26. /TASS/. Russia’s revised military doctrine that was signed into law by President Vladimir Putin on Friday for the first time ever lists the presence of foreign private military companies in the immediate vicinity of Russian borders as a threat to national security.
The previous version of the doctrine that was adopted in 2010 did not mention them in any way.
“The emergence or the hotbeds of inter-ethnic and/or inter-religious tensions, the operations of militarized international radical groupings and foreign private military companies in the areas adjoining the borders of the Russian Federation and its allies, as well as the presence of territorial contradictions and a growth of separatism/extremism in separate regions of the world,” says the text of the doctrine published at the Kremlin’s official website.
The previous edition of the doctrine spoke only of the “existence/emergence of the hotbeds of military conflicts and/or their escalation in the territories adjoining the Russian Federation and/or its allies.”

TASS: Russia - Russia’s new military doctrine allows creation of joint missile defense systems

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MOSCOW, December 26 /TASS/. Russia’s new military doctrine does not rule out creation of joint missile defense systems together with other countries on condition of Russia’s equal participation. The doctrine’s 2010 edition did not mention that possibility.
The document published on the Kremlin website on Friday sets forth Russia’s main tasks in deterring and preventing military conflicts. They include creation of mechanisms of mutually beneficial bilateral and multilateral cooperation in counteracting possible missile threats, including, if necessary, creation of joint missile defense systems if Russia has equal participation in these projects.
In addition to that, the document goes on to say, the Military doctrine provides for preventing attempts by separate countries (or a group of countries) to gain military superiority by stationing strategic anti-missile defense systems and strategic non-nuclear systems of precision weapons as well as deploying weapons in outer space.

Putin Signs New Russian Military Doctrine

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MOSCOW, Dec 26 (Reuters) - Russian President Vladimir Putin has signed a new military doctrine, the Kremlin said in a statement on Friday.
The new military doctrine says the main external risks for the country are the expansion of NATO's military capabilities and destabilization in several regions, RIA news agency reported.
The doctrine also says the main internal risks are activities to destabilize situation in the country and the activities of terrorists, it added. (Reporting by Polina Devitt; Editing by Alexander Winning)

Russia’s new military doctrine lists NATO as key threat

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This file photo shows Russian military vehicles.
Russia has approved an updated version of the country’s military doctrine which considers NATO military buildup as a major foreign threat against its national security.
The new doctrine, which was signed by Russian President Vladimir Putin on Friday, also lists the American Prompt Global Strike (PGS) concept among the top security threats to the country, Russia Today reported.
The PGS is an effort by the US military to develop a system which would allow the Pentagon to deliver precision strikes with conventional weapons at any target in the world in one hour.
The core of the new military doctrine remains unchanged as the Russian army is still a defensive tool, which Moscow has vowed to use only as a last resort.
The principles of the use of nuclear weapons have not changed since their primary goal is to deter potential attacks on Russia. However, the country would use them to protect itself in the face of the military assaults that could threaten its existence.
The new sections of the doctrine outline the threats that Russia sees in NATO’s expansion and the fact that the Western military alliance is taking upon itself “global functions realized with violation of international law.”
“The creation and deployment of global strategic anti-ballistic missile systems that undermine the established global stability and balance of power in nuclear missile capabilities, the implementation of the ‘prompt strike’ concept, intent to deploy weapons in space and deployment of strategic conventional precision weapons” are listed among main foreign military threats in the doctrine.
Relations between Russia and NATO strained after Ukraine’s Autonomous Republic of Crimea integrated into the Russian Federation following a referendum on March 16. The military alliance ended all practical cooperation with Russia over the ensuing crisis in Ukraine on April 1.
The United States and its European allies accuse Moscow of destabilizing Ukraine and have imposed a number of sanctions against Russian and pro-Russia figures. Moscow, however, rejects the accusation.
MR/MKA/SS
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UPDATE 1-Russia's new military doctrine names NATO as key risk

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Fri Dec 26, 2014 8:16pm IST
(Adds quotes, details)
MOSCOW Dec 26 (Reuters) - Russian President Vladimir Putin has signed a new military doctrine, naming NATO expansion among key external risks, the Kremlin said on Friday, days after Ukraine made fresh steps to join the Atlantic military alliance.
Moscow's previous military doctrine, signed by Putin in 2010, also identified NATO expansion as a top risk to Russia, but the stakes have risen sharply over the past year.
Russia said this week NATO was turning Ukraine into a "frontline of confrontation" and threatened to sever remaining ties if Ukraine's hopes of joining NATO were realised.
The Kiev parliament's renunciation of Ukraine's neutral status on Tuesday in pursuit of NATO membership has outraged Moscow and deepened the worst confrontation between Russia and the West since the end of the Cold War after Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Crimea peninsula this year.
NATO has already boosted its military presence in eastern Europe this year, saying it has evidence that Russia orchestrated and armed a pro-Russian rebellion in eastern Ukraine that followed the overthrow of a Kremlin-backed president in Kiev.
Moscow denies supporting the rebellion, and is currently trying, along with Kiev and the rebels, to renew efforts to find a political solution to the crisis in eastern Ukraine.
It is likely to take years for Ukraine to meet the technical criteria for accession to NATO and, even then, there is no certainty that the alliance is ready to take such a decision.
A NATO official said on Friday the alliance respected the move by Ukraine's parliament, and so should Russia.
"Should Ukraine decide to apply for NATO membership, NATO will assess its readiness to join the Alliance in the same way as with any candidate. This is an issue between NATO and the individual countries aspiring to membership." (Reporting by Maria Tsvetkova, additional reporting by Barbara Lewis in Brussels; Writing by Dmitry Zhdannikov; Editing by Alexander Winning)
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Putin signs new military doctrine naming NATO as Russia’s top military threat

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MOSCOW — President Vladimir Putin has signed a new military doctrine that describes NATO’s military buildup near the Russian borders as the top military threat amid Russia-West tensions over Ukraine.
The document released by the Kremlin on Friday maintains the provisions of the previous, 2010 edition of the military doctrine regarding the use of nuclear weapons. It says Russia could use nuclear weapons in retaliation to the use of nuclear or other weapons of mass destruction against it or its allies, and also in case of aggression involving conventional weapons that “threatens the very existence” of the Russian state.
For the first time, the new doctrine says that Russia could use precision weapons “as part of strategic deterrent measures.” The document doesn’t spell out conditions for their use.
Putin signed the new doctrine just as a major exchange of war prisoners was expected Friday. But the swap was embroiled in controversy, with some reports saying it has been completed and others saying it had has been pushed back a day.
Russia’s Interfax news agency said the exchange had been completed successfully on neutral ground between the sectors controlled by the insurgents and the government forces, but the ITAR-Tass news agency quoted separatist rights ombudsman Darya Morozova saying that the exchange was pushed back until Saturday.
The conflicting reports couldn’t be independently confirmed.
The pro-Russia rebels had been set to release 150 Ukrainian prisoners in exchange for the Ukrainian government releasing 222 captives, Ukrainian and rebel officials said.
Sergei Chuzavkov / Associated Press
Sergei Chuzavkov / Associated PressUkrainian government army soldiers patrol an area in the village of Debaltseve, Donetsk region, eastern Ukraine Wednesday. Peace talks aimed at reaching a stable cease-fire in Ukraine between its government forces and pro-Russian armed groups began on Wednesday in Minsk, Belarus, with the discussions to include a pullout of heavy weapons and an exchange of war prisoners.
Russia’s state television showed Ukrainian war prisoners boarding buses in the main rebel stronghold of Donetsk before being driven to a location north of the city where the exchange took place.
The exchange had been tentatively planned for earlier this week, and the failure to conduct it pushed back another round of Ukraine peace talks in the Belarusian capital, Minsk, which was set for Friday but was adjourned indefinitely.
Fighting in eastern Ukraine between government forces, volunteer battalions and pro-Russia separatists has claimed more than 4,700 lives since last spring.
Previous rounds of talks in September produced a cease-fire and an agreement to pull back heavy weapons, but both sides have failed to agree on a line of division and fighting continued.
Hostilities have diminished in the past weeks amid renewed peace efforts, but mutual suspicions and distrust have stymied progress.
Ukraine’s parliament vote earlier this week to abandon the country’s non-aligned status, a first step toward a possible bid for NATO membership which is anathema to Moscow, also has hampered talks.
Amid the tensions, Ukraine on Friday suspended train and bus services to the Russia-annexed Crimean Peninsula, citing security concerns.
Russia annexed the Black Sea peninsula in March following the ouster of Ukraine’s former Moscow-friendly president after months of protests.
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Russia's New Military Doctrine Lists NATO, US as Major Threats

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Russia has adopted a new military doctrine, naming NATO and the United States as major threats to its national security.
President Vladimir Putin approved the new doctrine Friday.
Its core remains largely unchanged.
New parts of the doctrine include what Russia sees as the threat posed by NATO's expansion and military buildup.
"NATO poses no threat to Russia or to any nation," an alliance official told VOA. "Any steps taken by NATO to ensure the security of its members are clearly defensive in nature, proportionate and in compliance with international law.  In fact, it is Russia's actions, including currently in Ukraine, which are breaking international law and undermining European security."
NATO reaffirmed that it intends to continue seek a constructive relationship with Russia, "but that is only possible with a Russia that abides by international law and principles -- including the right of nations to choose their future freely."
Russia's doctrine lists several military threats. They include “strategic antiballistic missile systems," which Russia says undermine the nuclear balance of power. The United States and some of its allies have expanded anti-missile systems in recent years, despite Moscow's objections.
The document also points to the threat of instability in countries bordering Russia or its allies and the possible deployment of foreign troops in those nations.
Russia issued the statement almost one year after a conflict erupted in eastern Ukraine after protesters in Kyiv forced the country's president, an ally of Moscow, to flee to Russia. Since then, Russia has annexed Ukraine's Crimea peninsula, and Russian-backed separatists have battled Ukrainian government troops in the country's east.
Ukraine's pro-Western parliament overwhelmingly passed a law on Tuesday abolishing Kyiv's neutral, non-aligned status, a step some Ukrainians hope will lead to European Union and NATO membership.
Moscow was quick to react -- Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov called the law counterproductive.
NATO has boosted its military presence in Eastern Europe this year due to Russia’s support for insurgents in eastern Ukraine.
Moscow has continuously denied supporting the rebellion.
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TASS: Russia - Russia's new military doctrine says use of protest moods typical for conflicts nowadays

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MOSCOW, December 26. /TASS/. Use of political forces and public movements financed and steered from abroad and utilization of non-military means along with military strength, including the population's willingness for protests make up a typical feature of military conflicts nowadays, says the revised version of Russia's military doctrine that was published by the Kremlin on Friday.
The edition of the doctrine issued in 2010 did not contain these provisions.
The new edition has retained the provision saying that today's conflicts expose a complex combat employment of military power and other instruments, but it specifies that the "instruments" embrace the use of "political, economic, informational and other nonmilitary measures implemented along with a broad utilization of the willingness to protest inherent in the population and special operations."
In addition, the updated doctrine also mentions the enmeshing of political forces and public movements in conflicts, the participation of paramilitary units and private military companies in combat operations, and the use of "tentative and asymmetric methods of impact."
Along with it, the doctrine stresses amassed combat employment of high-precision weaponry, drones and robots, wielding of impact on the entire enemy territory, and harassing of enemy activity in the informational sphere and in outer space.

Russian President Vladimir Putin signs new military doctrine

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MOSCOW: Russian 
PresidentVladimir Putin
 has signed a new military doctrine, naming NATO expansion among key external risks, the Kremlin said on Friday, days after Ukraine made fresh steps to join the Atlantic military alliance. 
Moscow's previous military doctrine, signed by Putin in 2010, also identified NATO expansion as a top risk to Russia, but the stakes have risen sharply over the past year. 

Russia
 said this week NATO was turning Ukraine into a "frontline of confrontation" and threatened to sever remaining ties if Ukraine's hopes of joining NATO were realised. 
The Kiev parliament's renunciation of Ukraine's neutral status on Tuesday in pursuit of NATO membership has outraged Moscow and deepened the worst confrontation between Russia and the West since the end of the Cold War after Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Crimea peninsula this year. 
NATO has already boosted its military presence in eastern Europe this year, saying it has evidence that Russia orchestrated and armed a pro-Russian rebellion in eastern Ukraine that followed the overthrow of a Kremlin-backed president in Kiev. 
Moscow denies supporting the rebellion, and is currently trying, along with Kiev and the rebels, to renew efforts to find a political solution to the crisis in eastern Ukraine. 
It is likely to take years for Ukraine to meet the technical criteria for accession to NATO and, even then, there is no certainty that the alliance is ready to take such a decision. 
A NATO official said on Friday the alliance respected the move by Ukraine's parliament, and so should Russia. 
"Should Ukraine decide to apply for NATO membership, NATO will assess its readiness to join the Alliance in the same way as with any candidate. This is an issue between NATO and the individual countries aspiring to membership."

BBC News - Russia promotes conventional forces in new doctrine

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26 December 2014 Last updated at 10:16 ET
File photo: Armed Russian soldier stands near Russian army vehicles outside a Ukrainian border guard post in the Crimean town of Balaclava, 1 March 2014Russian soldiers deployed across Crimea during the crisis in March
President Vladimir Putin of Russia has signed a revised version of the country's military doctrine, which identifies major threats to security.
The new document promotes the use of Russia's conventional, non-nuclear forces as a deterrent.
Chief among new threats identified by planners are the armed conflict in neighbouring Ukraine as well as events in the Middle East and Afghanistan.
Russian forces are believed to be operating covertly in eastern Ukraine.
Their reported intervention on the rebel side, as well as the annexation of Crimea from Ukraine in March after a disputed referendum, has been met with economic sanctions by Western states.
Russia's air force has also stepped up patrolling in international airspace close to Nato states while the Russian navy has raised its international profile to a lesser extent.
'Indirect action'
Nato expansion into eastern Europe remains the main military threat identified in the new planning document, published (in Russian) on the Kremlin website, which replaces the 2010 doctrine.
Ukraine's parliament voted this week to drop the country's non-aligned status and work towards Nato membership. However, its prospect of actually joining the alliance is questionable, given its territorial dispute with Russia over Crimea and the continuing conflict in its eastern regions.
After a meeting last week, the Russian Security Council announced in a statement (in Russian) that the new doctrine would take account of "the emergence of new threats for Russia, which became evident in the situation in Ukraine and around it and the events in Northern Africa, Syria, Iraq and Afghanistan".
Video shot by Dutch F-16 pilots for Nato's Baltic Air Policing mission on 8 December shows the apparent interception of Russian military aircraft
Notwithstanding that Russia has itself been accused by Nato regularly of covert military deployments in eastern Ukraine, the Security Council also found that unnamed "leading states" were taking "indirect action" to advance their interests.
They were, it said, using "the population's potential for protest, radical and extremist organisations, and private military companies".
America has long been accused by Russian hawks of steering pro-democracy uprisings in Ukraine and other ex-Soviet states to further its interests.
The doctrine remains defensive in nature, the Russian Security Council stressed, and regards use of military force only as a last resort.
As well as possessing a nuclear arsenal to rival that of the US, Russia maintains one of the largest conventional armies in the world, numbering just over 766,000 active officers and soldiers as of last year, compared to America's 1,370,000.
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Russia's strained relations with Nato
Nato members map
  • 1994 Russia joins Nato's Partnership for Peace
  • 1996 Russia takes part in Nato-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia
  • 1997 Nato and Russia sign Founding Act respecting territorial integrity of all states
  • 1999 Nato admits Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland; then in 2004 admits Baltic states, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia
  • 1999 Russia and Nato forces in standoff at Pristina airport in Kosovo; Russia earlier angered by Nato air strikes on Serbia
  • 2003 Russia allows German forces through its territory to join Nato-led force in Afghanistan
  • 2007 Russia suspends observance of 1990 Conventional Forces in Europe treaty (CFE) that limits heavy weapons, amid anger at US plans for missile defence system
  • 2008 Nato briefly halts contact over Russia's war with Georgia
  • 2011 Russia accuses Nato of going beyond UN mandate after air strikes on Gaddafi forces in Libya
  • 2014 Nato accuses Russia of sending troops and tanks into eastern Ukraine; proposes rapid response force
line
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· · · · ·

Russia's new military doctrine names NATO as key risk

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MOSCOW Fri Dec 26, 2014 9:47am EST
MOSCOW (Reuters) - Russian President Vladimir Putin has signed a new military doctrine, naming NATO expansion among key external risks, the Kremlin said on Friday, days after Ukraine made fresh steps to join the Atlantic military alliance.
Moscow's previous military doctrine, signed by Putin in 2010, also identified NATO expansion as a top risk to Russia, but the stakes have risen sharply over the past year.
Russia said this week NATO was turning Ukraine into a "frontline of confrontation" and threatened to sever remaining ties if Ukraine's hopes of joining NATO were realized.
The Kiev parliament's renunciation of Ukraine's neutral status on Tuesday in pursuit of NATO membership has outraged Moscow and deepened the worst confrontation between Russia and the West since the end of the Cold War after Russia's annexation of Ukraine's Crimea peninsula this year.
NATO has already boosted its military presence in eastern Europe this year, saying it has evidence that Russia orchestrated and armed a pro-Russian rebellion in eastern Ukraine that followed the overthrow of a Kremlin-backed president in Kiev.
Moscow denies supporting the rebellion, and is currently trying, along with Kiev and the rebels, to renew efforts to find a political solution to the crisis in eastern Ukraine.
It is likely to take years for Ukraine to meet the technical criteria for accession to NATO and, even then, there is no certainty that the alliance is ready to take such a decision.
A NATO official said on Friday the alliance respected the move by Ukraine's parliament, and so should Russia.
"Should Ukraine decide to apply for NATO membership, NATO will assess its readiness to join the Alliance in the same way as with any candidate. This is an issue between NATO and the individual countries aspiring to membership."
(Reporting by Maria Tsvetkova, additional reporting by Barbara Lewis in Brussels; Writing by Dmitry Zhdannikov; Editing by Alexander Winning)
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Military doctrine of Russia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The military doctrine of the Russian Federation is one of the main strategic planning documents in Russia and represents a system of officially state adopted views of preparation for the armed protection of Russia. The most recent edition of the military doctrine was signed by President Dmitry Medvedev on 5 February 2010.[1]
Numerous successive Military Doctrines have been promulgated since 1990. These have included the military doctrines of May 1992 (in draft form), November 1993, and January 2000, as well as the two National Security Concepts of December 1997 and October 1999. Military doctrine in the Russian sense, however, extends beyond discussion of potential threats. In Christopher Donnelly's words, it forms part of 'a set of views, accepted in a country at a given time, which cover the aims and character of possible war, the preparations of the country and its armed forces for such war, and the methods of waging it'.[2]

1992 draft[edit]

The 1992 draft doctrine showed that first Russian thoughts on external threats were little more than a replica of Soviet thinking. The document stated that while the threat of a world war had declined significantly, the 'sources of military danger' in international relations remained the same as under the USSR.
The first of those 'sources of military danger' was given as: 'the eagerness of single States or coalitions of states to dominate in the world community or in individual regions, and their predilection for settling matters in dispute by military means'.[3]
There could be little doubt that the General Staff, who produced the paper, had the United States and NATO in mind when they wrote this. As slightly further down, it was stated that Russia did not regard any state or coalition as an enemy, a contraction had been introduced between the old and the new, evolving security environment.[4] 'Powerful groupings of armed forces' near Russia's borders, the military build-up of 'certain states', international terrorism, and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction were also mentioned. Russia also subtlety rescinded its nuclear no first use commitment by indicating that conventional attacks on nuclear weapons, power plants, 'and other potentially dangerous facilities' (presumably chemical or biological sites) would be regarded as a first use of weapons of mass destruction.

1993 Military Doctrine[edit]

The Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR (as it was then) refused to approve the 1992 draft. A new military doctrine only entered into force in November 1993, and was not made fully public; the summary released covered 21 of the 23 pages of the document. No reason was given for the only-partial release of the text, and this gave rise to fears that the Russian Government and/or its military wished to conceal controversial or discreditable intentions.[5]
The summary released showed major differences from the external threats thinking of the 1992 draft. Two main threads showed through the list. Firstly was the remaining threat from the West, exemplified by worries over expansion of military blocs and violation of arms accords, as well as with interference with Russians abroad. The no-first-use commitment of nuclear weapons was dropped. Secondly, newer dangers were acknowledged; nearby internal wars, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and terrorism.[6]
In keeping with its emphasis on the threat of regional conflicts, the doctrine called for Russian armed forces that were smaller, lighter, and more mobile, with a higher degree of professionalism and with greater rapid deployment capability. Such change proved extremely difficult to achieve.

2000 Military Doctrine[edit]

Both in the 1992 draft and in the 1993 official document, a distinction had been drawn between sources of external military danger and immediate military threats. This distinction disappeared in the most recent doctrinal statement, which was first publicised in draft form in October 1999, and then finally approved by Presidential decree in late April 2000.[7]
While numerous changes were made to the document between its draft stage and final form, the section on external military threats remained virtually the same.[8] The first threat is seen as territorial claims upon the Russian Federation and interference in Russian domestic affairs, language drawn directly from the 1993 external dangers section. Secondly mentioned was disregard for Russian concerns in international conflict resolution, and opposition to strengthening Russia as one centre of a multipolar world. The multipolarity reference echos deleted sections from the 1999 draft, where two contradictory tendencies were set out: at one end, a trend toward a unipolar world based on the domination of one superpower - clearly the United States - and the military resolution of key problems, and at the other, a tendency toward the formation of a multipolar world, based on the rule of international law and the equal rights of people and nations.[9]

2010 Military Doctrine[edit]

Russia's 2010 military doctrine defines itself as strictly defensive.[10]
The doctrine[11] points out 11 actions seen as constituting "external dangers" (Russian: "опасности" opasnosti dangers) to the Russian Federation which include:
  • striving to give NATO forces global functions, moving NATO infrastructure closer to Russia's borders
  • attempt to destabilize the situation in various states and regions and undermine strategic stability
  • deployment of foreign military contingents in countries and waters adjacent to Russia and its allies
  • deployment of strategic anti-missile defense systems, undermining global stability, and violating the established nuclear balance of forces, the militarization of space, and deployment of non-nuclear precision weapons;
  • territorial claims against Russia and its allies and interference in internal affairs
  • spread of weapons of mass destruction, missiles and missile technology, increase in the number of nuclear states
  • violation by some states of international agreements and non-compliance with previously concluded arms limitation and reduction treaties
  • use of military force in adjacent states in violation of the UN Charter and other international legal norms
  • presence of sources and escalation of military conflict in territories adjacent to Russia and it allies
  • spread of international terrorism
  • occurrence of sources of inter-ethnic (inter-faith) tensions, activity of international armed radical groups in areas adjacent to Russia and its allies, growth of separatism and forcible extremism in various regions of the world
It also lists five actions seen as constituting military threats:
  • a sharpening of the military-political situation and creation of conditions for the use of military force
  • hindrance of the working of the state and military command and control system, interference in the functioning of its strategic nuclear forces, missile attack warning systems, space monitoring systems, nuclear warhead storage facilities, nuclear power and other potentially dangerous facilities
  • creation and training of illegal armed formations and their activity on Russian territory or that of its allies
  • demonstration of force in the course of conducting exercises in states adjacent to Russia or its allies with provocative intent
  • activation of military forces in various states with the conduct of partial or full mobilization and transition to wartime footing
Under the new doctrine, Russia continues to develop and modernize its nuclear capability. "Russia reserves the right to use nuclear weapons in response to the use of nuclear and other types of weapons of mass destruction against it or its allies, and also in case of aggression against Russia with the use of conventional weapons when the very existence of the state is threatened."[12]

References[edit]

  1. Jump up ^ "Russia’s new military doctrine approved". Retrieved 6 February 2010. 
  2. Jump up ^ Christopher Donnelly, Red Banner: The Soviet Military System in Peace and War, Jane's Information Group, Coulsdon, Surrey, 1988, p.106.
  3. Jump up ^ Fundamentals of Russia's Military Doctrine (Draft), Voennaya Mysl, May 1992, JPRS-UMT-92-008-L, 16 June 1992, p.2
  4. Jump up ^ Charles Dick, The Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, CSRC Occasional Brief 25, Conflict Studies Research Centre, RMA Sandhurst, November 1993, p.13
  5. Jump up ^ Charles Dick, The Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, CSRC Occasional Brief 25, Conflict Studies Research Centre, RMA Sandhurst, November 1993, p.1-2
  6. Jump up ^ The Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, 1993, Rossiiskie Vesti, 18 Nov 1993 via FBIS-SOV-93-222-S, www2.hawaii.edu/shaps/russia/russia-mil-doc.html, p.5.
  7. Jump up ^ Text of Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, approved by a presidential decree dated 21 April 2000, via BBC Monitoring, Caversham Park, Reading.
  8. Jump up ^ Dr S Main, Russia's Military Doctrine, CSRC Occasional Brief 77, April 2000, p.1
  9. Jump up ^ Draft Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation, Krasnaya Zvezda, 9 October 1999, p.3-4 FBIS Translation, Section 1.1.
  10. Jump up ^ "Russian president approves new military doctrine". Retrieved 6 February 2010. 
  11. Jump up ^ http://www.scrf.gov.ru/documents/33.html (in Russian)
  12. Jump up ^ http://www.scrf.gov.ru/documents/33.html

External links[edit]

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    ​China’s hypersonic strike vehicle ‘in 3d test flight’ — RT News

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    Published time: December 04, 2014 21:17
    Edited time: December 07, 2014 16:48
    Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle 2.(AFP Photo / DARPA)
    Falcon Hypersonic Technology Vehicle 2.(AFP Photo / DARPA)
    China has reportedly conducted a third flight test for its new ultra-high speed strike vehicle – capable of travelling at up to eight times the speed of sound, in what experts suspect is part of the development of its strategic nuclear program.
    The test flight, monitored by US intelligence services this week, was the third in a series of tests of the Wu-14 hypersonic glide vehicle—a high-accuracy, high speed projectile, reports the Washington Free Beacon. The first two were conducted earlier this year.
    A Pentagon representative confirmed the test to the WFB, but declined to provide further comment.
    “We are aware of reports regarding this test and we routinely monitor foreign defense activities,”Marine Corps Lt. Col. Jeff Pool said. “However, we don’t comment on our intelligence or assessments of foreign weapon systems.”
    Lora Saalman, a nuclear policy expert at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, said China’s third test of the Wu-14 in a year suggests an ongoing trend of militarization.
    “Not only does this third test of the WU-14 in one year indicate that this is a priority program for China, it also suggests that U.S. historical concerns over a Chinese quantitative ‘sprint to parity’ in nuclear weapons are misdirected,” she was quoted as saying in the Beacon.
    Though some form of hyper-sonic weapons has existed for decades, the new missiles being developed by the US, China and others belong to a class of their own because of the “boost-glide”technology which enables them to travel very quickly and at a flat angle. Boost-glide weapons follow a hard-to-trace trajectory which makes them difficult to target using current missile-defense systems.
    The weapons "are launched by big rockets just like a ballistic missile is," explained Carnegie nuclear expert James Acton. "But then rather than arcing higher than the atmosphere, they are put on a trajectory to re-enter the atmosphere as quickly as possible. Then they just glide to the target," he was featured as saying in Business Insider this fall.
    Experts say hypersonic capabilities are indicative of a large scale military build-up. Mark Schneider, a former Pentagon strategic forces specialist, was quoted as saying in the Washington Free Beacon that China’s latest hypersonic vehicle test poses “a serious threat.”
    The US and China have been engaged in what some have dubbed a hypersonic arms race. This summer, the US tested its own hypersonic missile after China ran its second test of the Wu-14. Though both countries had successfully tested hypersonic weapons in the past, both August tests failed.
    Russia, not one to stay out of the game for long, has also announced plans to build its first hypersonic missile before 2020. India, too, is involved in the development of the ultra-high speed arms.
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    Hi-tech gear stolen from Russia’s Mistral warship in France — RT News

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    Published time: November 28, 2014 22:07
    Vladivostok amphibious assault ship of the French Mistral class in the docks of SNX France. (RIA Novosti/Alexey Filippov)
    Vladivostok amphibious assault ship of the French Mistral class in the docks of SNX France. (RIA Novosti/Alexey Filippov)
    Electronic equipment, including hard drives and a device operating the helicopter carrier’s communications system, has been stolen off the Mistral ship built for Russia in the French port of Saint-Nazaire.
    An investigation into the case of the missing equipment has been launched, French media reported. “Sensitive material” could allegedly be stolen from one of the amphibious-assault vessels, constructed by the French in a multi-million dollar deal with Moscow.
    The items, which were announced missing on November 25, could have been stolen a week prior to that date, the prosecutor’s office of the French city of Rennes reported.
    According to AFP, two computer hard drives, a motherboard, and a graphics card – as well as a device with a program operating the carrier’s communications system – have disappeared from the ship.
    The Sevastopol, the second Mistral class amphibious assault ship, floated out in Saint-Nazaire. (RIA Novosti/Grigoriy Sisoev)
    The Sevastopol, the second Mistral class amphibious assault ship, floated out in Saint-Nazaire. (RIA Novosti/Grigoriy Sisoev)
    All the equipment was installed by French military electronics firm Thales, and could only be operated on the helicopter carrier.
    A spokesman for French shipbuilder DCNS, Emmanuel Godez, confirmed the theft to TASS news agency, but said the unique articles – which he refused to name – did not contain any secret or sensitive data.
    French ship builders STX, who are in charge of the Russian-ordered Mistral ship's construction, also confirmed that some items went missing. The company said a relevant statement had been submitted by the corporation to French police.
    According to Le Point magazine, a preliminary investigation did not find any evidence of a break-in. Russians are reportedly not suspected to be behind the theft, a spokesperson from France’s Defense Ministry said.
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    Russia launches ‘wartime government’ HQ in major military upgrade — RT News

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    Published time: December 01, 2014 09:44
    Edited time: December 01, 2014 10:59
    NDCC war room. Computer simulation. Image by Defence Ministy
    NDCC war room. Computer simulation. Image by Defence Ministy
    Russia is launching a new national defense facility, which is meant to monitor threats to national security in peacetime, but would take control of the entire country in case of war.
    The new top-security, fortified facility in Moscow includes several large war rooms, a brand new supercomputer in the heart of a state-of-the-art data processing center, underground facilities, secret transport routes for emergency evacuation and a helicopter pad, which was deployed for the first time on Nov. 24 on the Moscow River. The Defense Ministry won’t disclose the price tag for the site, but it is estimated at the equivalent of several billion dollars.
    The new National Defense Control Center (NDCC) is a major upgrade on what was previously called the Central Command of the General Staff, a unit tasked with round-the-clock monitoring of military threats against Russia, particularly ballistic missile launches, and deployment of strategic nuclear weapons. It was roughly a counterpart to the US National Military Command Center, the Pentagon’s principal command and control site.
    Image by Defence Ministy
    Image by Defence Ministy
    The NDCC inherits all those functions, but also has plenty of extra roles as well. In peacetime, an additional task is to monitor all of Russia’s important military assets, from hardware being produced by defense contractors to the state of oil refineries, to weather conditions and their effect on transportation routes.
    And if Russia does get into a war, the center would act as a major communication hub and a form of wartime government, delivering reports to the country’s military command and giving orders to all ministries, state-owned companies and other organizations, according to the needs of the armed forces.
    “The creation of NDCC was one of the biggest military projects of the past few years. The closest analogy in the past in terms of functions and tasks was the Commander-in-Chief HQ in 1941-45, which centralized all controls of both the military machine and the economy of the nation in the interests of the war,” Lt. General Mikhail Mizintsev, the NDCC chief, told Lenta.ru in an interview.
    Lt. General Michail Mizintsev. Image by Defence Ministy
    Lt. General Michail Mizintsev. Image by Defence Ministy
    The military says the upgrade has been long overdue. The national security situation may be very fluid in modern times, and instead of days the leadership may have only an hour to take crucial military decisions. The center’s job is to offer the Defense Minister and the President options in case of emergency, which would be based on facts, figures and accurate projections.
    Potentially the biggest part of the upgrade was the creation of communication and data processing equipment that would give the military computer power and software needed to factor in hundreds of parameters in their mathematical models. The Defense Ministry had to use only domestically-produced hardware due to security considerations, which limited its options.
    According to officials, the result is a very robust computer network with state-of-art data encryption and multiple backup sites spread throughout the country, which would keep the center functional even if its main facility in Moscow is damaged by an enemy attack or sabotage.
    Image by Defence Ministy
    Image by Defence Ministy
    The center employs over 1,000 officers working on a rotating watch system. Mizintsev said the armed forces selected their best officer for the posts, many of which are new for the Russian military and require skills not previously taught to officers on a regular basis until recently. They have been operating in trial mode since April.
    A thoroughly military facility, the NDCC has an unexpected civilian component to it. Its location in Moscow is close to two major hospitals, including the Pirogov trauma center. Both hospitals are quite old and their original designs didn’t provide for dedicated helicopter pads.
    The Defense Ministry said the medics can share NDCC’s new pad on the Moscow River for emergency patient transportation. The pad can accommodate helicopters weighing up to 15 tons, enough to land a Mil Mi-8, world’s most-produced transport helicopter, or a Mil Mi-38, its designated replacement.
    A Topol-M ballistic missile (RIA Novosti / Vitaliy Belousov)
    A Topol-M ballistic missile (RIA Novosti / Vitaliy Belousov)
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    Russia’s new military doctrine lists NATO, US as major foreign threats — RT News

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    Published time: December 26, 2014 13:02
    Edited time: December 26, 2014 14:03
    AFP Photo / Natalia Kolesnikova
    AFP Photo / Natalia Kolesnikova
    Russia has adopted an updated version of its military doctrine, which reflects the emergence of new threats against its national security. NATO military buildup and American Prompt Global Strike concept are listed among them.
    The new doctrine was approved on Friday by President Vladimir Putin. Its core remains unchanged from the previous version. The Russian military remains a defensive tool which the country pledges to use only as a last resort.
    Also unchanged are the principles of the use of nuclear weapons which Russia adheres to. Their primary goal is to deter potential enemies from attacking Russia, but it would use them to protect itself from a military attack – either nuclear or conventional – threatening its existence.
    The new sections of the doctrine outline the threat Russia sees in NATO’s expansion and military buildup and the fact that the alliance is taking upon itself “global functions realized with violation of international law.”
    The doctrine lists among major foreign military threats “the creation and deployment of global strategic antiballistic missile systems that undermines the established global stability and balance of power in nuclear missile capabilities, the implementation of the ‘prompt strike’ concept, intent to deploy weapons in space and deployment of strategic conventional precision weapons.”
    The Yury Dolgoruky nuclear-powered submarine.(RIA Novosti / Pavel Kononov)
    The Yury Dolgoruky nuclear-powered submarine.(RIA Novosti / Pavel Kononov)
    Another new point in the doctrine is that one of the Russian military’s goals is to protect national interests in the Arctic region.
    The document also points to the threat of destabilization countries bordering Russia or its allies and deployment of foreign troops such nations as a threat to national security.
    Domestically, Russia faces threats of “actions aimed at violent change of the Russian constitutional order, destabilization of the political and social environment, disorganization of the functioning of governmental bodies, crucial civilian and military facilities and informational infrastructure of Russia,”the doctrine says.
    Moscow sees international cooperation with countries sharing its effort to increase security, particularly members of BRICS, the OSCE, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and others as the key to preventing military conflicts, the doctrine states.
    Traditional threats that Russia must deal with mentioned in the doctrine include extremism and terrorism, proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and rocket technology and actions of foreign intelligence services.
    The document notes that modern threats are increasingly drifting from a military nature to informational, and states that the likelihood of anyone launching a fully-fledged war against Russia is decreasing.
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    Russia's Putin signs new military doctrine | Reuters

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    Russia's Putin signs new military doctrine

    MOSCOW Fri Dec 26, 2014 8:44am EST
    Russia's President Vladimir Putin speaks during a meeting of the State Council and the Presidential Council for Culture and Art, at the Kremlin in Moscow, December 24, 2014. REUTERS/Sergei Ilnitsky/Pool
    Russia's President Vladimir Putin speaks during a meeting of the State Council and the Presidential Council for Culture and Art, at the Kremlin in Moscow, December 24, 2014.
    Credit: Reuters/Sergei Ilnitsky/Pool

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